Submarine cables are laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean. They pretty much make the Internet global. Modern cables carry digital payloads using optical fiber technology, which is then used to carry telephone traffic as well as Internet and private data traffic.
The Submarine Cable Map is a free resource from TeleGeography. Data contained in the map link below is drawn from Global Bandwidth Research Service and is updated on a regular basis.